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Mount Kilimanjaro in afternoon light.
  Kilimanjaro NP
Size: 1,864 km2/720 sq mi.
Best time to visit: The best climbing season starts in September. January to February is also a good time.
Wildlife & attractions: Not much safari wildlife. Trekking and mountain climbing are the main activities in the park.
Getting there: Two hours on fairly good road from Arusha. 30 minutes from Moshi.
Kilimanjaro map
Kilimanjaro map.
Tanzania map
Tanzania map.
  More about climbing
For information on luggage on climbs, see Luggage list for climbing.
  More web sites
Mount Kilimanjaro National Park
By Tanapa.
Altitude illness
By Centers fod Disease Control and Prevention.
Safari glossary
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This page in Swedish
Go to for this page in Swedish.
Kilimanjaro National Park
Mount Kilimanjaro (5,895 m/19,340 ft) in Tanzania is the highest mountain in Africa. It is an extinct volcano, claimed to be the highest stand-alone mountain in the world, and has three peaks: Kibo, Mawenzi and Shira. The highest point (5,895 m/19,340 ft) is Uhuru Peak, the summit of Kibo.

Most visitors to the park come to climb (or, rather walk, as it is not proper mountain climbing) the mountain, hoping to make it all the way up to Uhuru Peak. Travel companies all over the world offer such climbing tours, stand-alone or combined with safaris or beach holidays, starting from five climbing days. The climbs are open to complete amateurs.

Map of Africa Namibia Botswana South Africa Zambia Mozambique Malawi Rwanda Tanzania Kenya Uganda
Other visitors come for trekking at lower altitudes, where altitude sickness isn't a problem.

The national park
The national park begins at 2,700 m/5,577 ft (the altitudes below that are protected by a forest reserve). The montane forests reaching up to 3,000 m/9,800 ft offers scenery and views, and holds some wildlife, including Abbot's duiker, elephant, African buffalo, eland, leopard, black and white colobus, blue monkey and birds.

At higher altitudes, the forests are replaced by moorlands, where macro vegetation such as giant lobelias may be seen. The mammal wildlife here is sparse, while some birds can be seen. The lammergeier, a huge montane vulture, is reported from here. At even higher altitudes, the landscape turns into alpine desert, and towards Uhuru Peak, into glaciers.

Mountain hut along the Marangu climb route.

Climbing Kilimanjaro
You should regard the below information as an introduction to climbing Kilimanjaro. Further reading from sources focusing on climbing and trekking is highly recommended before you attempt the mountain.

Guided climbs and groups
Only guided climbs, arranged by licensed tour operator, are allowed. You may join a group (some operators have set dates for groups that anyone may join) or have a private climb arranged just for you and your party. The group is followed by guides, cooks and porters.

You may book a complete tour package, including international flights, transfers and hotel stays before and after the climb, or just the climb, starting and ending at the foot of the mountain. Like safaris, mountain climbs can be tailored.

Kilimanjaro is situated less than two hours' drive from Arusha, which means that you can start a climb the day after returning to Arusha from a safari to Serengeti, Ngorongoro etc.

Climbing routes
The Kilimanjaro climb follows one of a number of set routes, of which some are harder or more difficult than others. You should choose one that suits your shape and experience from mountains, or you may face a climb that's too tough for you.

Each route has a minimum number of days (the shortest is five days long). It's wise to choose a tour that has an extra day for acclimatization on the mountain. Such a day reduces the risk of altitude sickness, and increases your chances to reach the summit.

The final stage of the ascent is the same for all routes described below (except Western Breach). This stage, called Barafu (meaning ice or snow in Swahili), goes from Barafu hut up to Uhuru Peak.

It's walking, not climbing
You don't do any proper mountain climbing, but walk, sometimes in very steep terrain. There are also more advanced routes for experienced mountaineers, but you who read this page are probably not one of them.

Routes Days Lodging
Marangu 5–6 Mountain huts
Umbwe 6–7 Camping
Machame 6–7 Camping
Shira 6–9 Camping

Marangu and Rongai
Marangu and Rongai are the least tough routes, leading up the mountain from the east and north respectively. Both can be climbed in five days. Do it in six, to allow for a day of acclimatization.

The Marangu route has been known to be busy, with many groups passing. Being the easiest route, it has been nicknamed 'the coca-cola route'. It's the only route that offers overnight stays in mountain huts (all other routes mean camping in small tents). It's considered less scenic than other routes. Still, once you come out of the mountain forests at the end of the first day, you'll have great views.

Fewer climbers choose the Rongai route, and even though it's meant to offer a nicer nature experience than Marangu, it's not really scenic.

Both Marangu and Rongai climbers use the Marangu route for descending from the mountain. This adds to the traffic on the Marangu route.

Umbwe is the shortest way up the mountain and can be done in six days. It's steeper, less scenic and more dangerous than the other routes, and shouldn't be attempted if you lack experience. The descent follows the Mweka route, which is used for descents only.

The Machame route has become the most popular route with Kilimanjaro climbers during the last years, and has quite a lot of traffic. Generally, you can expect less traffic if you start the climb in the middle of the week instead of during weekends.

Machame is tougher than Marangu and approaches the mountain from the south-west. You should be in good shape to attempt the route, which passes through forests and moorland, and is said to be one of the most varied. (Machame, Shira and Lemosho are all more varied than Marangu and Rongai, but also tougher, as the route keeps going up and down, and as there is more rain.) You can do the Marangu route in six days. The descent follows the Mweka route.

Shira is a less common route. It's seven days long, and joins the Machame route from day three. The two first days climb the western side of the mountain and cross the Shira plateau. This long route automatically adds one day of acclimatization. If you lack experience from outdoor life or mountain climbs, the long stay on the mountain may be a disadvantage (see Mountain fatigue below). The descent follows the Mweka route.

Lemosho is an eight-day route from the west, passing through forests, moorlands and the Shira Crater. It joins the Machame route on day four. The descent follows the Mweka route.

Western Breach
The Western Breach is an alternative for the final stage, leading to Uhuru peak from the west. It's an option for climbers approaching Kibo from the Shira plateau, and offers a much more difficult and dangerous ascent than Barafu, which is the normal last stage to the peak. You shouldn't attempt the Western Breach unless you know what you are doing, and you should only do it using an experienced and competent climb operator.

An option: mountain walks
If you are more interested in walking the mountain and enjoying the scenery than challenging the highest peaks, you may book a trekking tour instead, staying at lower altitudes. You may trek between low-altitude mountain huts, or doing a day-tour on the mountain, walking up to just below 3,000 m/10,000 ft, and then return down.

There are also other mountains offering trekking, such as Mount Meru just outside Arusha, where tourists are by far fewer, or the beautiful Usambara Mountains along the road between Kilimanjaro and Dar es Salaam. Volcanoes such as Oldoinyo Lengai (an active volcano in northern Tanzania) and Longonot (in southern Kenya) can be climbed.

Note, March 2008: Oldoinyo Lengai is erupting and is not a suitable area for climbing or trekking at this time.

View from the mountain side.

Who can climb Kilimanjaro?
Climbing Kilimanjaro isn't for athletes only, and it's open to absolute amateurs, with no previous experience from climbing mountains.

It's tough
Everybody who tries to climb Kilimanjaro doesn't reach the summit. It's tough, both physically and mentally. Stamina is important, as you will be expected to walk for a number of full consecutive days in air that is getting thinner and cooler the higher you get. You need to be mentally strong, and really want to reach the summit, as the climb may be hard and your body upset in various ways.

To succeed, you should choose a route that suits your physical shape and your experience from mountains. You should make sure you are as fit as possible. You should read all you can about the mountain and climbing it, and prepare yourself mentally, remembering it's going to be hard. You should choose a travel company or tour operator that doesn't save on equipment or provisions. You should go during a time of year when weather and other conditions are favourable. And you should book an itinerary that has acclimatization on the mountain included.

Altitude sickness
Altitude sickness, or acute mountain sickness, may start at 3,000 m/10,000 ft. It has nothing to do with how fit you are, so you can't prevent it. The cause of it is that the body hasn't adapted to the low air pressure. The only cure is to increase the air pressure, i.e. descend to lower altitudes.

Common symptoms are headaches, dizziness, lack of appetite, fatigue, swelling of hands, feet and face, etc. High altitude pulmonary oedema and high altitude cerebral oedema can quickly develop, and an immediate descent from the mountain is necessary, as both can be fatal. Because of the condition, the person affected may not be able to walk, but has to be carried.

There is medicine for altitude sickness, but it does not cure the sickness, only reduces the symptoms.

You may reduce the risk of altitude sickness by choosing an itinerary that allows for acclimiatization. That means spending time at some altitude, allowing your body to adapt to the thinner air.

Mountain fatigue
Adding a number of days (not just one) for acclimatization isn't necessarily good. It helps your body adapting to the altitude, while wearing other capacities down. The primitive camp conditions, poor sleep, inactivity, lack of good and varying food, and the general wear on your body gradually decreases your ability to perform well physically.

Lower age limit
The official age limit for joining a climb is 10 years, but a more suitable age limit would be 15 or 16.

Upper age limit
There is no upper age limit. If you're older than 60, or have had heart or respiratory problems previously, you should discuss your climbing plans with a doctor before booking. All climbers, especially those who are 40–45 years or older, should consider a medical check-up before starting the tour. (You may get your vaccinations and a prescription for malaria prophylaxis at the same time.)

At the end of the day, it's all up to you. Are you fit enough to climb a mountain 6,000 m/20,000 ft high?

Climbing Kilimanjaro is not without risk. It's a big strain on your body. Altitude sickness may develop into high altitude pulmonary oedema or high altitude cerebral oedema, from which you may die unless you quickly descend, or are carried, to lower altitudes. Deaths do occur on Kilimanjaro, because of sickness and from accidents.

Rescue services
Everyone who's going higher than 3,000 m/10,000 ft in Kilimanjaro National Park has to pay a rescue fee (usually included in the tour package) to the park authority. The rescue service is simple, should it be needed, and mainly means carrying you down from the mountain. There are no helicopters.

Will you reach the summit?
Whether you will be able to reach the summit or not depends on many factors, such as the services provided by the climb operator, the weather and time of year, your physical condition, your equipment, and if you are prone to altitude sickness or not.

Preparing at home
You will perform better if you are in good shape. If you are in poor shape, you shouldn't attempt the climb at all. It requires you to walk broken ground for a number of full consecutive days, in air getting thinner and thinner. The final stage to reach the summit is a six to eight hour tough walk at very high altitude and in a very cold climate.

Walk as much as you can before the tour, wearing the boots that you will wear for the climb. Go for long walks, lasting several hours. Go bicycling or jogging a couple of times a week. Lifting weights is of less use when preparing for a climb.

Go trekking if you have the opportunity. Walk full days, preferably in hilly areas. If you are not used to camping, you should try it to prepare for what's waiting during the climb. Get used to outdoor life, including in bad weather, and you'll handle the primitive conditions during the climb better.

Preparing on arrival
Rest well before the climb. If it's the first activity after arriving in East Africa, you may benefit from adding one or a number of days to relax before starting the climb. Such days allow you to slow down, catch up on sleep after the flight and start adapting to the African environment. They also allow your head to switch from whatever you were up to at home before travelling, to the climb. This doesn't mean that you have to spend the days doing nothing; some physical activity is good for you, and you may for example do lighter walks at lower altitudes.

During the climb
Drink a lot of water, which helps acclimatization. Avoid tobacco and alcohol, which do the opposite. Walk slowly without getting out of breath. Try to sleep well during the climb (bring earplugs).

Choosing a tour operator
The competition between the many local climb operators is tough, and many of them compete by price. You usually get what you pay for, and a lower price usually means that the operator spends less on food, equipment, porters, guides etc, i.e. things and services meant to help you beat the mountain.

On a six-day climb, approximately USD 400 of the climb or tour price cover set fees, which are the same for all operators. The rest of the price is the operator's budget for getting you all the way up. A USD 700 climb has only half the budget of, and less resources than, a USD 1,000 climb.

If you book you climb with a travel company in your own country, the company has already chosen a local climb/tour operator to cooperate with. But if you plan to book directly with a local operator, you may choose from more than 200 operators licensed to arrange Kilimanjaro climbs. We suggest that you start looking at the large and medium-sized operators (you'll find them on the web), to compare what they are offering.

You may climb Kilimanjaro all year round, but your chances of reaching Uhuru Peak are affected by the weather and the season when you attempt it. The following table shows the conditions on the mountain during a normal year.

Number of visitors
   Normal temp/Little rain/Clear/Few visitors
   Lower temp/Some rain/Some clouds/Normal # of visitors
   Cold/A lot of rain/Cloudy/Many visitors
 Risk of snow
 Risk of storms
Lodges and hotels
Aishi Machame.Aishi Machame is a good hotel in quiet surrounding by the foot of Kilimanjaro, not far from the park gate where the Machame route begins. The standard and service is good. The hotel has a swimming pool, a bar, and an ambitious restaurant with good food.

More about Aishi Machame

Web site:

KIA Lodge.KIA Lodge is a fairly new lodge next to Kilimanjaro International Airport, a 45-minute drive from Arusha. The lodge has good standard. There are 40 rooms, restaurant, bar and swimming pool overlooking Kilimanjaro and Mount Meru. The lodge works fine for stays after arriving late to the airport or before departing early. The airport isn't very busy, so the noise doesn't really bother much.

More about KIA Lodge

Web site:

Keys Hotel (Moshi) is really two hotels, in Uru Road and Mbokomu Road in Moshi. They have 30 and 48 rooms respectively, and offer basic tourist standard. Both have restaurant, bar, swimming pool and Internet.

Web site:

Kilimanjaro Backpackers Hotel (Moshi) is a budget hotel in central Moshi. There are single and double rooms with ceiling fans. The bathrooms are shared but separate. There is a restaurant and a bar. Internet, money exchange and other facilities are available at sister hotel Kindoroko a short walk from Kilimanjaro Backpackers.

Web site:

Kindoroko Hotel (Moshi) is a basic hotel in Moshi, offering rooms with ensuite bathroom, ceiling fan, refrigerator and television. There is an indoors restaurant, a rooftop restaurant & bar, and a business centre.

Web site:

Kilimanjaro Crane Hotel (Moshi) is a basic hotel with 30 rooms, all with ensuite bathroom, television, air conditioning and phone. The hotel has a restaurant, a bar and a car rental service.

Web site:

Kibo Hotel (Marangu) is a 45-room tourist class hotel in a building from the early 1900's, situated not very far from the Marangu Gate of Kilimanjaro National Park. There is a restaurant for up to 200 persons, a bar and a garden with a swimming pool.

Web site:

Kilimanjaro Mountain Resort (Marangu) is a good hotel among banana and coffee plantations 7 km/4 mi from the Marangu Gate of Kilimanjaro National Park. The hotel is built and styled in a modernized colonial style. It has 25 rooms, all with satellite television, mini bar, phone and Internet port. There are two restaurants and a bar, garden swimming pool, gym, business centre, conference room for 80, and a playground for children.

Web site:

Kilemakyaro Mountain Lodge (Marangu) is a tourist class hotel in a large lush garden at the foot of Kilimanjaro. The main building, a former farm house, has reception, restaurant, bar, lounge and Internet. 30 rooms in garden bungalows all have views of Kilimanjaro from the veranda. The hotel has a garden swimming pool, and offers outings in the surroundings.

Web site:

Marangu Hotel is not very far from the Marangu Gate. The central building is a former farm house form the early 1900's, surrounded by a fairly large garden, where rooms in cottages and the swimming pool are found. The cottages are of varied style, but all have private bathrooms with bathtub or shower.

Web site:

Springlands Hotel is a tourist class hotel situated on the southern slopes of Kilimanjaro, not far from Moshi Town. There are rooms with tiled ensuite bathrooms, indoors and outdoors dining facilities, a garden bar, a large garden swimming pool, television room, fitness room, gift shop, Internet, bicycle rental, equipment rental for climbers and safe deposit. The hotel has its own shuttle bus service to Moshi.

Web site:

Mt. Kilimanjaro View Lodge is a basic lodge set high on the slopes of southern Kilimanjaro, halfway between the Machame and Marangu gates. It is operated by locals of the Chagga tribe. You stay in Chagga style bungalows with private bathrooms and wide views of the surrounding lowland. You can expect a bumpy ride getting to the lodge, as it's 16 km/10 mi on unpaved road off the main road.

Web site:

Makoa Farm (Machame) is mainly a horseback riding lodge just south of Kilimanjaro, but can also be used for a overnight stays in connection with mountain climbs, or for relaxed farm vacations. The farm is an old coffee estate built in a nice setting on a hilltop not very far from the Machame Gate of Kilimanjaro. It is owned by two veterinaries and former professional endurance riders, and has some 25 horses and a variety of other farm animals. The riding activities offered range from farm rides to eight-day riding safaris.

Web site:

Kahawa Shamba on the slopes of Kilimanjaro is a basic bungalow lodge operated by the local community. The rooms are built like the traditional huts of the local Chagga tribe, and have private bathrooms with basic guesthouse standard. The activities offered include walks in the forested surroundings and horse riding.

Kambi ya Tembo.Kambi ya Tembo is set by the border to Kenya north of Kilimanjaro. The area shares part of its wildlife with the Kenyan park Amboseli. The camp has 12 tents with ensuite bathrooms, and a restaurant. The safari activities offered include game drives, night safaris, bush walks and visits to Maasai villages.

Web site:

Hemingway's Camp is a tented camp in the bush west of Kilimanjaro. It is not focused on climbing, but on safaris in the wilderness west and north of the mountain. The activities offered include day and night game drives, bush walks and visits to the local Maasai. The area shares its eco-system with Amboseli in Kenya, famous for its many elephants, and is a dry area where for example lesser kudu and gerenuk may be spotted. Expect a good safari atmosphere.

Web site:

Ndarakwai Camp is an environmentally friendly tented lodge on privately owned Ndarakwai Ranch, a game area between Mount Meru (Arusha) and Kilimanjaro (Moshi), situated towards the north and the Kenyan border. The camp has 12 safari tents with ensuite bathrooms, and offers bush walks, game drives, night game drives, bird watching and (with prior arrangement) horse rides in the bush. There is also a tree-platform for game viewing by a waterhole. You can expect a good safari atmosphere, with campfires, kerosene lamps and wildlife around.

Web site:

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Page updated 27 April 2013